Tuesday, 29 December 2015

OUGD501 Sarah Lucas (Studio Brief One)

Sarah Lucas' work often includes photography, collage and objects, and is often humorous. Lucas created a series entitled ‘Ordinary Things’, in which she would create installations of household objects and food to create thought provoking artwork. Her installation entitled ‘Au Naturel 1994’ uses a mattress, water bucket, melons, oranges and a cucumber to resemble the sexual organs of both a man and a woman lying on a bed, ready for sexual intercourse. The melons used for the woman’s breasts reference the use of the word ‘melon’ in popular slang. ‘In this way, Lucas is showing how sexuality is embedded in language through association with everyday objects.’

Wednesday, 23 December 2015

OUGD501 Tracey Emin (Studio Brief One)

Tracey Emin is an artist that often makes very controversial artwork. This particular installation was a tent that showcased all of the names of people that she had ever slept with. This was very controversial for the time, as it not only involved family members and aborted babies, but also sexual partners. Unfortunately, this installation was destroyed in a fire.

"At that time Sarah (Lucas) was quite famous, but I wasn’t at all. Carl said to me that I should make some big work as he thought the small-scale stuff I was doing at the time wouldn’t stand up well. I was furious. Making that work was my way at getting back at him."

Monday, 30 November 2015

OUGD501 Primary Research & Considerations, Study Task Six (Studio Brief One)

Identify research aims, research method, population and sample.

Within my research, I will need to gather a range of research that all suggests that sexuality has an impact on the creative industry.

I could do this by interviewing people, reading news articles and asking people their opinions. 

Sunday, 22 November 2015

OUGD501 Possible Quotes (Studio Brief One)

"Cause I may be bad but I'm perfectly good at it
Sex in the air, I don't care, I love the smell of it
Sticks and stones may break my bones,
But chains and whips excite me."

Rihanna S&M

"[N]o one appeared to wonder whether this S-M proliferation was a lesbian copy of a faggot imitation of patriarchal backlash against feminism."

Robin Morgan, "The Politics of Sado-Masochistic Fantasies", in Going Too Far: The Personal Chronicle of a Feminist, p 235.

"What all these people are doing is not aggressive; they are inventing new possibilities of pleasure with strange parts of their body - through the eroticization of the body. I think it's...a creative enterprise, which has as one of its main features what I call the desexualization of pleasure."

- Quote in Aldrich, Robert and Wotherspoon, Gary (Eds.) Who's Who: In Gay and Lesbian History from Antiquity to World War II (2001), in reference to S/M.

OUGD501 Mapping an Essay, Study Task Five (Studio Brief One)

To what extent does sexuality have an impact on the creative industry?


  • This essay will address the social movement of the sexual revolution (also known as sexual liberation) from 1960s to the 1980s, however I am not solely going to focus on this era, I will cover the contemporary revolution that is happening in current day, such as fetish, female sexuality and gender fluidity. I will also discuss the impact that the sexual revolution has had on the media and creative industries and vice versa. 

4 main points of argument.

  • The role of the mass media in the 1960s and how the media still impacts society today in relation to sex, for example documentaries shown on television and sex shops. Analyse an advert and evaluate if it has been affected by the sexual revolution. 
  • Analyse specific artists such as Tracey Emin, who impacted many people by creating 'shocking' artwork at the time and how it has encouraged other artists to push further with their own design.
  • Discuss the impact that the sexual revolution had on feminism, and contrast it with the new theory of 'meninism'. This is also a crucial part of the essay where you can discuss 'Guerilla Girlz'.
  • I will create a counter argument using the book 'The Failure of the Sexual Revolution' and argue this. I will also discuss Freud and his opinions on society and the sexual revolution. 
More points of argument:
  • Brief history of The Sexual Revolution.
  • The Failure of the Sexual Revolution.
  • Analyse specific artists such as Tracey Emin and the impact that they have had on the creative industry with controversial artwork.
  • Mass media in the 1960s & how the media still impacts society today in relation to sex - e.g. documentaries on television.
  • Analyse an advert from pre-revolution and post-revolution & evaluate if it has been affected by the sexual revolution.
  • Discuss the availability of sex toys & general sex due to sex shops and the internet, for example Tinder, Grindr and Her.
  • The impact that the sexual revolution has on Feminism - contrast this with meninism. This is a key point to discuss the Guerilla Girlz & use quotes from their book.
  • Analyse a theory from Freud that is relevant.

Monday, 9 November 2015

OUGD501 Practical Investigation Requirements, Study Task Four (Studio Brief One)

1.What is your research question?

My research question is 'To what extent does sexuality have an influence on the creative industry?'
2.Do you have a hypothesis (an assumed conclusion that you will endeavour to prove)?

I am going to try to prove that sexuality does have an impact on the creative industry, but also that the creative industry has an impact on sexuality. Within this, it could also cover how the media has a huge influence too.
3.What are the contexts of your research interests?

4.Sources of primary/secondary research.

News articles, galleries, publications, websites.
5.How will your practical work relate to your written work (synthesis)?

My practical work will have to relate closely to one of the points discussed in my essay. I'm assuming my essay will be very broad as there are a lot of subjects to cover, so as long as it relates closely to one of the topics discussed then this should be achievable. I will have to write a synthesis to make sure it is obvious where the practical work idea came from.
6.What methods will you use to research, develop, create and test your work?

As of yet, I'm not 100% sure that my work will need to be tested, it depends what the practical will be. If it is a publication, it will have to be very conceptual.

Monday, 2 November 2015

OUGD501 Establishing a Research Question, Study Task Three (Studio Brief One)

Suggested Research Question

I've been doing some research and I think it would be really interesting to write an essay about sexuality, however I will need to discuss with Simon if this is appropriate as I am unsure how I can discuss this within Graphic Design.

Which Of The Module Resources Does This Question Relate To?

This could relate to advertising, as women and men are depicted very differently, as women are often sexualised. 

Which Academic Sources Are Available On The Topic?

Bignell, J. (2002) Media Semiotics. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Chapters 1 and 2

How Could The Research Question Be Investigated Through Practice?

It could be investigated multiple different ways, whether it is branding a sex shop, creating a campaign or publication.

Monday, 26 October 2015

OUGD501 Possible Direction for Essay (Studio Brief One)

Subcultures > Sexual Subcultures > Sexual Revolution > Gender Identity > Commercial Graphic Design & Advertising

Steer Clear from an Ethical Statement.

Things/People to research into:

The Sexual Revolution
Tracey Emin
Egon Schiele
Joseph Finegan

Monday, 12 October 2015

OUGD501 Parody and Pastiche, Study Task Two (Studio Brief One)

Postmodernism was from the 60s onwards and changed the way people thought. It was in reaction to modernism.

Modernism does away with history in favour of the future. It is industrialism and technology based.

Jameson is a marxist theorist, so is therefore critical and political.
Hutcheon is a culture theorist. Her theories are influenced by movies and books etc.

Parody & Pastiche.

1. What is parody/pastiche according to each author?

Jameson: Talks more about pastiche than parody. He says that pastiche is the appreciation of being able to relive the past. He says that the work parody shouldn't be used to talk about post-modernism.

Hutcheon: Talks more about post-modernism being parody. She thinks positively of it, as it is mocking modernism.

2. How does parody/pastiche relate to postmodernism?

Parody is copying a style of work and mocking it, whereas pastiche is copying a style of work and honouring it.

3. How does Jameson's tone of voice compare to Hutcheon's?

Jameson: Speaks of pastiche critically, as he is a Marxist theorist.

Hutcheon: Speaks of parody positively, however is critical of Jameson.

Jameson thinks that parody should be avoided however Hutcheon quotes him on pastiche when discussing parody.

4. How might these ideas relate to graphic design/visual communication?

It can either be used as nostalgia or as a rebellion. This needs to be addressed along with the audience at the beginning of the design process.

Write a definition of parody/pastiche according to Jameson & Hutcheon and how these relate to contemporary visual communication. Use at least one quote from each author and use Harvard Referencing.

According to Jameson, parody is 'the imitation of a peculiar or unique... style, the wearing of a linguistic mask, speech in a dead language' He says pastiche is 'thus a blank parody, a statue with blind eyeballs" it is to parody what the other interesting and historically original modern thing, the practice of a kind of blank irony.' He speaks very highly of pastiche, however says that the word parody shouldn't be used in relation to post-modernism. He kind of says that the word parody gives the opportunity to copy other peoples work and get away with it, for example 'Plato's conception of the "simulacrum", the identical copy for which no original has ever existed'.

However, according to Hutcheon, parody is 'the modern city of being the product of an alliance between bureaucracy and totalitarianism', meaning that she views postmodernism as a mockery of modernism. She disagrees with Jameson as she thinks parody is 'not just the cry of rage of a minority of intellectuals who want to teach others how to live, and who celebrate their own solitude and separateness'.

Stranger and Stranger.


Political Satire.

OUGD501 Design and Authorship, Study Task One (Studio Brief One)

In the next 2 weeks, think about possible questions to write a 3,000 word essay for.
What kind of designer do you want to be? What kind of person are you? What interests you?

Image Music Text - Roland Barthes (1960's French philosophy)
At its core - a set of ideas about the world that are relevant to Graphic Design students, and also society in general and every individual in the world.

Barthes, R. (1977) 'Image-Music-Text', London, Fontana Press pp.142-148.
Barthes, R. (1968) 'The Death of the Author' in May 1968, 'Image Music Text', London, Fontana Press, pp.142-8.

Written in the moment of a revolutionary uprising. Psycho-social and sexual revelations - reinvention of life, morals and identity.

'Auteur theory' if someone has a particular style/technical expertise/underlying inner content that reflects their ideas about the world. You understand the world through the person who produced it.

  • Putting an author to a text makes the text close ended and not open to interpretation.
  • Author - closed rather than open ended.
  • Reader should be interpreting and creating own opinions from text. Should be challenging the author not conforming. 
  • There's an idea that nothing is original without any knowledge of anything that has happened before.
  • Meaning only ever happens when we create it.
Study Task: how does the text relate to graphic design process?
My groups words; History & Politics.


  • Removal of the author by the internet.
  • Author nowises to text.
  • Modern separator is simultaneous with text.
  • Authoritative/Author
  • Author = limit.
  • These limits create conformity.
  • Modernism.
  • Cultural authority.
  • Original ideas.
  • Culture - Popular culture.
  • The meaning isn't fixed e.g. Burberry.
  • Modernism removes author.
  • The 'author' of history.
  • Birth of the reader - take charge of your lines; make your own meaning of the world.

This text was written in the 1960's by Roland Barthes. Back when this text was written, it was not as easy a task to obtain information. The age we live in nowadays can still be interpreted through the text, for example online the author is often removed so the information can be interpreted by the reader and not just by the author, for example on news websites, there are comment sections below so you can get an opinion from people all over the world and not just the writer. This is key to Barthes theory, as he wrote 'Once the author is removed, the claim to decipher a text is quite futile' (Barthes, R, 1977).

Another example of the internet supporting Barthes theory is the fact that with image, text and audio online, it is often hard to decipher the owner (author) of that creation, as online it is very easy to copy and paste and share, especially on social media websites where information gets shared worldwide. Barthes wrote ‘The removal of the author is not merely an historical fact or an act of writing; it utterly transforms the modern text’. This shows that the creation can be interpreted a lot easier these days and we can have opinions on certain things that back in 1977 might not have been apt. 

Monday, 4 May 2015

OUGD401 Evaluation

Overall, I have thoroughly enjoyed the module as I think I have been very challenged, especially with the written side as I don't think I have ever written an essay involving so many facts and not solely based on opinion/interpretation. I think this has truly challenged me as I had to learn to write in a completely different style. I really struggled with this, also especially Harvard Referencing correctly. I really enjoyed the practical side, however, as I think it really tested me and it was the first branding project that I started that wasn't for just a day, it was quite a big project and I think I put a lot of effort into it that paid off.

I think a strength of this project was my logo design, as I was very persistent and wanted to create the best logo for the brand. I think I have succeeded in this, as although the logo doesn't exactly work at a tiny scale, it doesn't exactly need to as the logo will mainly be on packaging, websites and recipe cards. I think another strength of mine was probably also the packaging design, as I think it was a big decision changing the packaging entirely from a tin to frozen food, however I think it would definitely sell as it is now branded at a completely different, upper class market.

I think a weakness of this project was probably my written essay, as I struggled with this a lot and found it incredibly challenging to stick to facts. However, I think overall I have written a good essay and I will know that for next year that I should start writing it earlier and get as much help with it as possible. I think another weakness of this project was time management, as I didn't think designing myself a logo would take so long, as I struggled choosing a good one, however I think this paid off in the end and I'm really happy with the final outcome.

OUGD401 Product Placement

The product is generally placed quite low on the shelves at the moment as it doesn't sell too well, however with my rebrand it can now be placed at the very top of the shelves, so will therefore be noticed a lot more and in turn sell a lot more products. As it will now be branded as a kind of pate, it will be on the top shelf, opposed the the bottom of the tin shelf. 

Saturday, 2 May 2015

OUGD401 Recipe Cards

I decided that as the original packaging had recipes on, I would create a small leaflet with a recpie on as well, kind of a collectable, as each would be distributed inside a Spam packet, so therefore it would also encourage buying the product as the people will want more recipes. I think this is successful as it's very simplistic and therefore fits with the brand that I have recreated. I also think the photograph works well as it is a high quality image that I found online.

OUGD401 Photographs of Product

I then made the product and took some photographs of the final packaging. I printed the wrap around label onto matt stock, although I printed it with a lazor printed so it still looks a litte shiny. 

I then took some photographs with the Spam inside the packaging. I think it's effective because the colour of the meat contrasts really well with the blue label. 

OUGD401 3D Packaging

I then started designing some packaging for my product. I wanted my packaging to be really minimal and clean to read. I also wanted some of the texture from my logo to be visible in the design. I decided to justify the type because I thought it would make it easier to read and also look more aesthetically pleasing.  This is the first design I came up with. I thought that the design was really successful, however I thought the colour scheme was a little harsh.

For this reason, I decided to do the opposite colours. I thought this was a lot more successful as it was less harsh on the eyes and it was more legible. I added the diagonal lines to break up the packaging, and I also thought it would help when creating the 3D packaging as it would help line both sides up straighter.

I then tested it on a blank slate. I thought it was incredibly successful, although obviously the type of meat inside the packaging would be different. I thought that the packaging fitted really effectively.

Thursday, 30 April 2015

OUGD401 Packaging Development

After looking at some packaging, I have decided that I want to create a wrap around package and brand Spam as actual meat. This would also increase the profit margin for Spam as it will have to be kept in the fridge/freezer, and therefore people will buy it a lot more often.



Ingredients: Pork (89%), Salt, Starch, Water, Ham (2%), Sugar, Stabiliser, Trisodium Diphosphate, Flavourings, Antioxidant: Sodium Ascorbate, Preservative: Sodium Nitrate.

May contain traces of milk

Gluten Free

Store in cool, dry place. Refrigerate after opening, in a non-metallic container and consume within 48 hours.

Best before: 05/05/2015

Sunday, 26 April 2015

OUGD401 Packaging Research

Before designing packaging, I thought I would look into packaging that already exists. I found this packaging below, which I think is really successful as the packaging looks a bit like sweets, and it's really eyecatching and makes me want to buy it, even if I'm not really 100% sure what it is.

I then found this packaging below. I think it's really successful as it's obvious that the sandwiches are aimed at children as each package is given a character. It's also successful that it's smart packaging as the sandwiches can be seen through the mouth of the creature. It's also a nice added touch that the creatures have sticky out ears, as it would make the packaging stand out on the shelf even further. 

I found this packaging for Gillette which I think is really successful as it is in black and white, and therefore seems really old and traditional. It's successful as a sans serif typeface is used which gives the product a modern style, but also suggests that the product has been around for years and is still very successful.

I found this outside packaging for a map from Manhattan to New York which I think is very simplistic but effective as it's minimal and therefore gives an essence of the map - it's easy to follow and to be informed by. I think the fact that the type is all central is effective as it makes it readable on the wrap around cover.

This is another example of smart advertising. I'm not really sure what the product is, however I think the packaging is really clever and well thought out, and it makes me want to buy the product anyway just to show people. This is an example of the brand being more important than the product. 

This is a similar idea I had for when I considered rebranding Good Value's brand by Walmart. It shows the product through the packaging, which shows that you get what you pay for. I think this branding is the opposite of what I want to put across with my branding, however, as I'm trying to get the message across that it's more about branding than the actual product. 

I then decided to look into packaging that could be specific to Spam. I found this tin that is designed really nicely, however I think I want to completely change the packaging of Spam from a tin to something else, maybe the package that meat comes in as I think it will make it look more expensive and desirable.

I decided I would look into the packaging for specifically meat. I found this below, which I think is unsuccessful as it looks quite cheap and the typeface is very bold and in your face which is unappealing. It looks like a very post-modern style because it's really busy.

I then found this packaging for the same product by the same brand Pravo Domace. I think this design is a lot more successful as it is less cluttered, however I don't think the photograph is relevant or neccessary and I still don't like the typeface used.

I then found this packaging which I think is really successful and would also be a good purchase as it would fit in the freezer/fridge easier as it's in a flexible package. I think this would be a good thing to consider, however I'm not too sure how I'd go about making a mock up, so I'm just going to design the outside cardboard packaging.

I think this packaging is really successful in a similar way to the pasta, as it shows that you get what you buy in a smart way. However, it isn't exactly necessary for meat as normal packaging shows the meat inside anyway, which is good as you can be picky, as most people are when it comes to meat. 

Saturday, 25 April 2015

OUGD401 Logo Tests

Before carrying on, I wanted to check that the logo would be transferable onto objects. To do this, I used a book I bought around a year ago called 'Blank Slate'. It is basically a book full of stock images to put your own designs on and you also get a cd with high quality images on. I tried to use objects that could be relevant for the brand, such as folders, letters, plates, tins, bags and uniform. 

I think the logo is definitely successful so now I am going to proceed with packaging the product. 

Wednesday, 22 April 2015

OUGD401 Further Logo Development

I experimented with some colour schemes even though I knew that I wanted to use the colour blue, just to make sure that I couldn't find a more effective colour. I didn't which I was happy with because I knew that a dark blue would be effective for the brand, as it has been for years. I did like the last colour used, however I don't think it works very well and I don't think it'll work when contrasted with the colour of the meat.

To develop my logo even further, I wanted to create a texture that the illustrations in my logo would fluently have. To do this, I created a glitchy pattern using illustrator and overlayed it ontop of the logo design. I had to do this in sections as otherwise it took far too much of the logo design away. This is my final logo design which I think is really effective and traditional, and therefore relevant to the essence of the brand.

OUGD401 Colour Scheme / Swatch

For my colour scheme, I knew I wanted to change it quite a bit from the original Spam colours used on the packaging, as I think the colours make the product quite cheap, similar to Kraft's Mac & Cheese, although in actual fact Spam is quite expensive for a tinned food. Below are the original spam colours and a colour swatch.

I decided that I should look into colour theory and see what the colours actually mean. I created this colour chart because I thought it would be very useful for this project and future projects when I look into colour theory. I found out that the colour blue suggests loyalty, which is relevant for the product as it has been around since 1937, so a lot of people must buy it. The colour yellow, however, suggests cowardice. I think this could be relevant for the company and their packaging, as the packaging and logo hasn't ever been changed.

I created my own colour swatch for the brand. I knew that I wanted to get rid of the colour orange and mainly focus on the colour blue to show brand loyalty. I also added some colours that looked effective together. I imagine the grey to be silver, however obviously I can't show this on the computer. I also added black and white, as all of the colours work really well together as they make the blue stand out a lot. I changed the shade of blue from the original Spam packaging, as personally I think the blue that they use is very bright and makes the product look cheap. I decided to use a darker, duller shade of blue, which I think shows sophistication with the other colours. 

Tuesday, 21 April 2015

OUGD401 Logo Development

Before jumping straight onto a computer to design my logo, I decided I would start by drawing out some thumbnail ideas, as I've found this really useful in the past for other modules, such as PPP. I starting by doing a mind map of the current logo, which I think I will find helpful as I want to steer clear of creating a similar logo. I thought the logo was simple, boring, childish, cheap, that the colour scheme was awful and this specific serif typeface was ineffective.

I then created a mindmap of what I want my own logo to be. I decided I wanted it to be traditional, have an expensive feel, be classic, simplistic, elegant, have a nicer colour scheme and have a different audience/market.

I then started designing some icons and logo ideas of my own. I started with the obvious responses - pig noses, trying to fit the work 'Spam' into a pig nose and just simplistic typography. I then decided to try to create a logo within a circle, as I thought it reminded me of the branding of animals which could work. 

I carried on designing logos in a circle, however I didn't really think they were working very effectively. I then started playing around with the idea of using a silhouette of a pig. I think this could definitely be effective as it would make the product seem more like meat than it actually is, and therefore it would be less processed and better for the buyer.

I then decided to go back to playing around with typography. I don't think any of these ideas are very successful as they're quite simplistic and not very relevant to the brand - although they may work better when they look neater designed on Illustrator.

I then went back to the idea of the pig nose. I thought this might work in a circle with type, although I thought it would be quite hard to tell as a thumbnail and I would have to actually create it on Illustrator to know for sure.

I have decided I have done a lot of logo development and I think that some of the logo designs could definitely be successful for the brand. I am now going to create some of the ideas using Illustrator. I think the design below is ineffective as it looks very formal and doesn't look too relevant - although it could work on packaging.

I think this logo design is actually nice as it's really simplistic.
I think this logo is too similar to the original, however it is in a nicer typeface so could be effective.
This logo could definitely work, however the typeface didn't fit very will in the circle and therefore would need work to make it look central.
I actually really like this logo design. It's incredibly simple and reminds me of the branding of animals. I think it would look really nice with a texture over the top.
I like this logo design too, it's simple and also reminds me of animal branding. The only problem with it is that it looks slightly like an important form that people have to fill out.
I really like this logo design as the inner circle breaks up the block colour and the typeface looks a lot more effective in a circle. It also works as the pigs back is in the same circular shape.
I like this logo design, however, again, the work Spam looks very out of place.
I tried to develop the first logo that I liked by making it look more like branding, but now I think it is too busy and therefore ineffective.
I really like the simplicity of this logo design. I think it works very well in a rectangle and there is a good use of negative space.
I tried to create a kind of spam burger logo design, however I don't think it's very nice as it's busy and not spacious enough.
I think the simplicity of this logo is really effective and the typeface fits really well with the circles.
I really like this logo design as it reminds me of animal branding and it's very simple and elegant.
I think this logo design is effective also as it reminds me of a Spam burger, something that the actual spam packaging has an image of on.
I don't think this logo is very effective as the type doesn't fit very well, however I like the idea of it being a kind of label.
I don't think this is effective as the type seems too close together and it's very condensed.
I really like this logo design and I think I want it to be my final design as it's simple, informative and basically explains what the product is. I did it on a slant for some reason which I think is ineffective, however I am going to recreate it so that it is straight.
This is my final logo design and I'm really happy with it. I think the typeface works really effectively with the block colour as it breaks up with block colour so it looks like there is more negative space than there actually is. I think it's good as it doesn't look too busy, although doesn't look too simple either.